How to cite quotations from electronic sources when there are no page numbers

Most, but not all, journal articles are available as a pdf file.  When there is no pdf the article is made available on a web page in html format without page numbers.  If you want to include a direct quotation from such a source, this is what you do:-


1.  If paragraph numbers are visible in the document, use them instead of page numbers.  The abbreviation to use is para.

Smith and Jones (2013) stated that “direct quotation here” (para. 2).

2. If there are no paragraph numbers use the heading and number of the paragraph following it.

In their study Smith and Jones (2013) discovered that “direct quotation here” (Results, para. 3).

3.  When the heading is very long, use a shortened version with quotation marks.

“Direct quotation here” (Smith and Jones, 2013, “Implications for Future,” para. 2).

The heading was “Implications for Future Development of this Management Structure”


If you have any questions about how to cite or reference a source you can email and we will help you.


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