Journal articles are an excellent source of up-to-date and reliable information. The best students use journal articles as well as books in their research.
Do you remember which information you needed to reference a book? There are a few more bits of information in a journal article which you need to make a note of in order to reference it correctly. The main sections you need to make a note of are:
- Year of publication
- Title of article
- Journal name
- Issue number (only use if there is no continuous pagination, i.e.: if each issue begins with page 1)
- Page number
- doi (if available)
If you have the journal article in front of you, you can normally find this information on the first page. Alternatively search for the article on iFind, the library catalogue (using the ‘Articles & more’ tab) and you will be able to see the bibliographic information you need in order to reference correctly. You can also use the Citation option in the Actions menu to see the APA reference. Remember to check the details are correct, though!
This is how this journal article should look in the reference list
Cohen, J., Manzon, G., & Zamora, B. (2015). Contextual and individual dimensions of taxpayer decision making. Journal of Business Ethics, 126, 631-647.
In text citation
Sometimes you may want to cite a direct quote in your assignment, however try to use direct quotes sparingly as paraphrasing shows a better understanding of your topic.
If you decide you would like to include a direct quote it is very important you use quotation marks and you always include page numbers. There are a number of ways you can do this:
At the start of the sentence:
According to Cohen, Manzon and Zamora (2015, p. 632) “There are a number of non-economic factors that potentially affect taxpayer decisions.”
According to Cohen, Manzon and Zamora (2015) “There are a number of non-economic factors that potentially affect taxpayer decisions” (p. 632).
At the end of the sentence:
“There are a number of non-economic factors that potentially affect taxpayer decisions” (Cohen, Manzon & Zamora 2015, p. 632).
How many authors should I include?
Journal articles and indeed books can sometimes be written by many authors, APA has a specific rule for how many authors you should include in-text.
Let’s use this journal article as an example:
Fast, N., Sivanathan, N., Mayer, N., & Galinsky, A. (2012). Power and overconfident decision-making. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 117(2), 249-260.
If the resource you want to cite has 3-5 authors (which this example does) you must include all the authors the first time you cite, therefore it would look like this in text:
According to Fast, Sivanathan, Mayer and Galinsky (2012) overconfident leaders perform poorly.
Overconfident leaders perform poorly (Fast, Sivanathan, Mayer & Galinsky, 2012).
Because you included all 4 authors in the first citation you can now use et al. on any subsequent citations in text.
Fast et al. (2012) found that individuals with a subjective feeling of power tend to overestimate their abilities.
Individuals with a subjective feeling of power tend to overestimate their abilities (Fast et al., 2012).
If the resource you want to cite has 6 or more authors you can use et al. the first time you cite.
Tomorrow we’ll look at websites and online documents.