5 Days of Referencing (#su5dor): Day 4. Formatting your reference list

Over the last 3 days we have looked at the 3 main information sources you will be using in your assignment: academic books, journal articles and online documents/websites.  It is important that your reference list provides all the information in order for your lecturers to be able to find the source if they wanted.

It is also important that it is formatted in the correct APA style.  This is sometimes where students struggle and spend a long time manually formatting their lists; however there are a number of tools in Word that can make this process quicker and easier for you.

Key points

  • The reference list should start on a new page.
  • Your reference list should include everything you have cited in your assignment NOTeverything you have read (which is called a bibliography).
  • It should be alphabetical according to author’s surname.
  • It should be double-spaced and indented.

If we use all the resources we have looked at over the last 3 days my reference list would look like this:

A reference list in APA format

To do this is 3 easy steps in word, firstly highlight the reference list, then select the icon A-Z from the options, then to double space and indent the list choose the small arrow next to paragraph and from the options choose Special>Hanging, then Line spacing>double.

Screenshot of the options to choose when formatting an APA reference list in MS Word

Here’s a short screencast to show you how to format the list using the tools in Word.  

Questions?

If you have any questions so far let us know using the comments section in the blog or via twitter using #su5dor. You can also email buslib@swansea.ac.uk.

Tomorrow we’ll look at tools that can help you reference.

5 Niwrnod o Gyfeirnodi (#su5dor): Diwrnod 4. Fformatio eich rhestr gyfeiriadau

Dros y tridiau diwethaf rydym wedi edrych ar y tair prif ffynhonnell wybodaeth y byddwch yn eu defnyddio yn eich aseiniadau, sef llyfrau, erthyglau mewn cyfnodolion a dogfennau ar-lein/gwefannau. Mae’n bwysig bod eich Rhestr Gyfeiriadau’n darparu’r holl wybodaeth er mwyn i’ch darlithwyr allu dod o hyd i’r ffynhonnell, os byddant am wneud hynny.

Mae’n bwysig hefyd ei bod wedi’i fformatio yn yr Arddull APA gywir. Mae myfyrwyr weithiau’n cael anhawster â hyn ac yn treulio llawer o amser yn fformatio’u rhestri eu hunain; ond mae nifer o offer Word a all wneud y broses hon yn gynt ac yn haws i chi.

Pwyntiau allweddol

  • Dylid dechrau’r Rhestr Gyfeiriadau ar dudalen newydd.
  • Dylai’ch Rhestr Gyfeiriadau gynnwys popeth rydych wedi’i ddyfynnu yn eich aseiniad, NID popeth rydych wedi’i ddarllen (a elwir yn llyfryddiaeth).
  • Dylai fod yn nhrefn y wyddor yn ôl cyfenw’r awdur.
  • Dylai fod bylchau dwbl rhwng llinellau a dylai fod wedi’i mewnoli.

Os defnyddiwn yr holl adnoddau rydym wedi edrych arnynt dros y tridiau diwethaf, byddai fy Rhestr Gyfeiriadau’n edrych fel hyn:

A reference list in APA format

Mae gwneud hyn yn cymryd tri cham syml yn Word: yn gyntaf, amlygwch y Rhestr Gyfeiriadau; yna dewiswch yr eicon A-Z o’r opsiynau; yna i roi bylchau dwbl rhwng llinellau a mewnoli’r rhestr, dewiswch y saeth fach ger y paragraff, ac o’r opsiynau dewiswch ‘Special>Hanging’, yna ‘Line spacing>double’.

Screenshot of the options to choose when formatting an APA reference list in MS Word

Dyma sgrinlediad byr i ddangos i chi sut i fformatio’r rhestr gan ddefnyddio’r offer yn Word.  

Cwestiynau?

Os oes gennych unrhyw gwestiynau hyd yn hyn rhowch wybod i ni gan ddefnyddio’r adran sylwadau yn y blog neu drwy twitter gan ddefnyddio #su5dor. Gallwch hefyd e-bostio buslib@swansea.ac.uk.

Yfory byddwn yn edrych ar offer a allai’ch helpu i gyfeirnodi.

5 Days of Referencing (#su5dor): Day 3. Websites and online documents

Remember what we said on day 1? The key to referencing well in an assignment is firstly to use good reliable sources.  Make sure you evaluate anything you find online using the WWWW method:

Who – Who wrote the information?
Why – 
Why is this information there (Is there a bias?)
When – When was it published (is it current enough?)
Where – 
Where is it from (clues in the URL ie: .com, .ac.uk)

The main sections you need to make a note of in order to reference a website or online document correctly are:

  • Author(s) (personal or corporate)
  • Year of publication
  • Title of website/document
  • Date of retrieval (only needed if the source is likely to be updated)
  • Direct working URL

Very often some bits of information will not be available with online documents; a common one is no date – in this case you can do the following:

  • No date? – use (n.d.) instead

You can find further advice on pages 18 – 20 of our APA referencing guide.

In the reference list
Here are a few examples:

Websites
You only need to include a date of retrieval in the reference list if you think a website maybe updated (it’s difficult to know this sometimes).

Tesco PLC. (n.d.). Our businesses. Retrieved March 10, 2017, from https://www.tescoplc.com/about-us/our-businesses/.

Online publication
This reference links to the PDF version of the code which has a published date, therefore it does not need a date of retrieval.

Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. (2016). Annual report and accounts 2015-16. Retrieved from https://www.cipd.co.uk/Images/annual-report-2015-16_tcm18-16632.pdf

 In text citation
A good tip if you are going to use the same citation a few times in your assignment is to use acronyms.  You must explain the acronym in full the first time you use it, followed by the acronym so it is clear to your lecturer what is stands for.

First citation:
According to the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD, 2016, p.18) a “healthy, happy and engaged workforce is an important indicator of our success”.

Or

According to the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD, 2016) a “healthy, happy and engaged workforce is an important indicator of our success” (p.18).

Or

A “healthy, happy and engaged workforce is an important indicator of our success” (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD), 2016, p.18).

Second citation
Because you explained the acronym in the first citation you can now just use the acronym on any subsequent citations in text.

Engagement in ongoing training and development is “the key to a successful career” (CIPD, 2016, p.18).

Or

The CIPD (2016) state that employees should engage in ongoing training and development as it is “the key to a successful career” (p.18).

Questions?

If you have any questions so far let us know using the comments section in the blog or via twitter using #su5dor. You can also email buslib@swansea.ac.uk.

Tomorrow we’ll look at formatting your reference list.

5 Niwrnod o Gyfeirnodi (#su5dor): Diwrnod 3. Gwefannau a dogfennau ar-lein

Ydych chi’n cofio beth ddwedom ar Ddiwrnod 1? Yr hyn sy’n allweddol er mwyn cyfeirnodi’n dda mewn aseiniad yn y lle cyntaf yw defnyddio ffynonellau dibynadwy da. Gwnewch yn siŵr eich bod yn gwerthuso popeth a gewch ar-lein gan ddefnyddio’r dull WWWW (Who, Why, When, Where):

Pwy – Pwy ysgrifennodd y wybodaeth?

Pam – Pam bod y wybodaeth yno? (A oes tuedd?)

Pryd – Pryd cyhoeddwyd y wybodaeth? (A yw’n gyfredol?)

Ble – O ble mae’r wybodaeth? (Cliwiau yn yr URL h.y. .com, .ac.uk)

Y prif adrannau y bydd angen i chi eu nodi er mwyn cyfeirnodi gwefan neu ddogfen ar-lein yn gywir yw:

  • Awdur(on) (personol neu gorfforaethol)
  • Blwyddyn cyhoeddi
  • Teitl y wefan/dogfen
  • Dyddiad adalw (os yw’n debygol y caiff y ffynhonnell ei diweddaru yn unig)
  • URL uniongyrchol sy’n gweithio

Yn aml iawn, bydd peth gwybodaeth nad yw ar gael ar gyfer dogfennau ar-lein; enghraifft gyffredin yw dim dyddiad – yn yr achos hwn gallwch wneud y canlynol:

  • Dim dyddiad? – defnyddiwch (n.d.) yn lle

Mae cyngor pellach ar dudalennau 19-21 ein Canllawiau Cyfeirnodi APA.

Yn y Rhestr Gyfeiriadau

Dyma ychydig o enghreifftiau:

  • Gwefannau

Yr unig achos y mae angen nodi dyddiad adalw yn y Rhestr Gyfeiriadau yw os credwch y gallai’r wefan gael ei diweddaru (mae’n anodd gwybod weithiau).

Tesco PLC. (n.d.). Our businesses. Adalwyd ar Mawrth 10, 2017, o https://www.tescoplc.com/about-us/our-businesses/

  • Cyhoeddiad ar-lein

Mae’r cyfeiriad hwn yn cysylltu â fersiwn PDF y Côd, y mae dyddiad cyhoeddi arno, felly nid oes angen rhoi dyddiad adalw.

Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. (2016). Annual report and accounts 2015-16. Adalwyd  https://www.cipd.co.uk/Images/annual-report-2015-16_tcm18-16632.pdf

Dyfynnu o fewn y testun

Gair i gall: os byddwch yn defnyddio’r un dyfyniad sawl gwaith yn eich aseiniad, defnyddiwch acronymau. Rhaid i chi egluro’r acronym yn llawn y tro cyntaf, gyda’r acronym ei hun, fel bod yr ystyr yn amlwg i’r darlithydd.

  • Dyfyniad cyntaf:

Yn ôl y Sefydliad Siartredig Personél a Datblygu (CIPD, 2016, t.18) “a healthy, happy and engaged workforce is an important indicator of our success”.

Neu

Yn ôl y Sefydliad Siartredig Personél a Datblygu (CIPD, 2016) a “healthy, happy and engaged workforce is an important indicator of our success” (t.18).

Neu

A “healthy, happy and engaged workforce is an important indicator of our success” (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD), 2016, t.18).

  • Ail ddyfyniad

Am i chi egluro’r acronym yn y dyfyniad cyntaf, gallwch nawr ddefnyddio’r acronym mewn unrhyw ddyfyniadau eraill yn y testun.

Ymgysylltu â hyfforddiant a datblygiad parhaus yw’r “key to a successful career” (CIPD, 2016, t.18).

Neu

Mae’r CIPD (2016) yn nodi y dylai gweithwyr ymgysylltu â hyfforddiant a datblygiad parhaus gan mai hynny yw’r “key to a successful career” (t.18).

Cwestiynau?

Os oes gennych unrhyw gwestiynau hyd yn hyn rhowch wybod i ni gan ddefnyddio’r adran sylwadau yn y blog neu drwy twitter gan ddefnyddio #su5dor. Gallwch hefyd e-bostio buslib@swansea.ac.uk.

Yfory byddwn yn edrych ar fformatio eich Rhestr Gyfeiriadau.

5 Days of Referencing (#su5dor):Day 2. Journal articles

Journal articles are an excellent source of up-to-date and reliable information. The best students use journal articles as well as books in their research.

Do you remember which information you needed to reference a book? There are a few more bits of information in a journal article which you need to make a note of in order to reference it correctly. The main sections you need to make a note of are:

  • Author(s)
  • Year of publication
  • Title of article
  • Journal name
  • Volume
  • Issue number (only use if there is no continuous pagination, i.e.: if each issue begins with page 1)
  • Page number
  • doi (if available)

If you have the journal article in front of you, you can normally find this information on the first page.  Alternatively search for the article on iFind, the library catalogue (using the ‘Articles & more’ tab) and you will be able to see the bibliographic information you need in order to reference correctly. You can also use the Citation option in the Actions menu to see the APA reference. Remember to check the details are correct, though!

Screen clipping of the iFind citation tool for a journal article

This is how this journal article should look in the reference list
Cohen, J., Manzon, G., & Zamora, B. (2015). Contextual and individual dimensions of taxpayer decision making. Journal of Business Ethics, 126, 631-647.

In text citation
Sometimes you may want to cite a direct quote in your assignment, however try to use direct quotes sparingly as paraphrasing shows a better understanding of your topic.

If you decide you would like to include a direct quote it is very important you use quotation marks and you always include page numbers.  There are a number of ways you can do this:

At the start of the sentence:
According to Cohen, Manzon and Zamora (2015, p. 632) “There are a number of non-economic factors that potentially affect taxpayer decisions.”

Or

According to Cohen, Manzon and Zamora (2015) “There are a number of non-economic factors that potentially affect taxpayer decisions” (p. 632).

At the end of the sentence:
“There are a number of non-economic factors that potentially affect taxpayer decisions” (Cohen, Manzon & Zamora 2015, p. 632).

How many authors should I include?
Journal articles and indeed books can sometimes be written by many authors, APA has a specific rule for how many authors you should include in-text.

Let’s use this journal article as an example:

Fast, N., Sivanathan, N., Mayer, N., & Galinsky, A. (2012). Power and overconfident decision-making. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 117(2), 249-260.

If the resource you want to cite has 3-5 authors (which this example does) you must include all the authors the first time you cite, therefore it would look like this in text:

First citation
According to Fast, Sivanathan, Mayer and Galinsky (2012) overconfident leaders perform poorly.

Or

Overconfident leaders perform poorly (Fast, Sivanathan, Mayer & Galinsky, 2012).

Second citation
Because you included all 4 authors in the first citation you can now use et al. on any subsequent citations in text.

Fast et al. (2012) found that individuals with a subjective feeling of power tend to overestimate their abilities.

Or

Individuals with a subjective feeling of power tend to overestimate their abilities (Fast et al., 2012).

If the resource you want to cite has 6 or more authors you can use et al. the first time you cite.

Questions?

If you have any questions so far let us know using the comments section in the blog or via twitter using #su5dor. You can also email buslib@swansea.ac.uk.

Tomorrow we’ll look at websites and online documents.

5 Niwrnod o Gyfeirnodi (#su5dor): Diwrnod 2. Erthyglau mewn Cyfnodolion

Mae erthyglau mewn cyfnodolion yn ffynhonnell wych o wybodaeth ddiweddar a dibynadwy. Mae’r myfyrwyr gorau yn defnyddio erthyglau cyfnodolion yn ogystal â llyfrau yn eu hymchwil.

A ydych chi’n cofio pa wybodaeth sydd ei hangen arnoch i gyfeirnodi llyfr? Mae ychydig yn rhagor o wybodaeth mewn erthygl mewn cyfnodolyn y mae angen i chi ei nodi er mwyn cyfeirnodi’n gywir. Y prif adrannau y bydd angen i chi eu nodi er mwyn cyfeirnodi erthygl mewn cyfnodolyn yn gywir yw:

  • Awdur(on)
  • Blwyddyn cyhoeddi
  • Teitl yr erthygl
  • Enw’r cyfnodolyn
  • Cyfrol
  • Rhif y Rhifyn (os oes tudaleniad parhaus yn unig h.y. os yw pob rhifyn yn dechrau ar dudalen 1)
  • Rhif y dudalen
  • doi (os ar gael)

Os yw’r erthygl gyda chi o’ch blaen, mae’r wybodaeth hon fel arfer ar y dudalen gyntaf. Neu, chwiliwch am yr erthygl yn iFind (catalog y Llyfrgell), gan ddefnyddio’r tab Erthyglau a mwy, a byddwch yn gallu gweld y wybodaeth lyfryddiaethol angenrheidiol er mwyn cyfeirnodi’n gywir. Gallwch hefyd ddefnyddio’r opsiwn Dyfynnu yn y ddewislen Gweithredoedd i weld y cyfeirnod APA. Er, cofiwch wirio bod y manylion yn gywir!

Screen clipping of the iFind citation tool for a journal article

Dyma sut y byddai’r erthygl yn edrych yn y Rhestr Gyfeiriadau

Cohen, J., Manzon, G., & Zamora, B. (2015). Contextual and individual dimensions of taxpayer decision making. Journal of Business Ethics, 126, 631-647.

Dyfynnu o fewn y testun

Weithiau, efallai y byddwch am ddefnyddio dyfyniad uniongyrchol yn eich aseiniad, ond ceisiwch ddefnyddio dyfyniadau’n gynnil, oherwydd mae aralleirio’n dangos mwy o ddealltwriaeth o’ch pwnc.

Os dewiswch gynnwys dyfyniad uniongyrchol, mae’n bwysig iawn eich bod yn defnyddio dyfynodau ac eich bod bob amser yn cynnwys rhifau tudalen. Mae nifer o ffyrdd y gallwch wneud hyn:

  • Ar ddechrau’r frawddeg:

Yn ôl Cohen, Manzon a Zamora (2015, t. 632) “There are a number of non-economic factors that potentially affect taxpayer decisions.”

Neu

Yn ôl Cohen, Manzon a Zamora (2015) “There are a number of non-economic factors that potentially affect taxpayer decisions” (t. 632).

  • Ar ddiwedd y frawddeg:

“There are a number of non-economic factors that potentially affect taxpayer decisions” (Cohen, Manzon & Zamora 2015, t. 632).

Sawl awdur y dylwn ei gynnwys?

Gall erthyglau mewn cyfnodolion, a llyfrau, gael eu hysgrifennu gan sawl awdur, ac mae gan APA reol benodol ar gyfer sawl awdur y dylid ei gynnwys yn y testun.

Beth am ddefnyddio’r erthygl hon fel enghraifft:

Fast, N., Sivanathan, N., Mayer, N., & Galinsky, A. (2012). Power and overconfident decision-making. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 117(2), 249-260.

Os oes gan yr adnodd yr hoffech ei ddefnyddio dri i bum awdur (fel yr enghraifft hon), rhaid i chi gynnwys pob awdur y tro cyntaf y dyfynnwch hwy, felly byddai’n edrych fel hyn yn y testun:

Dyfyniad cyntaf

Yn ôl Fast, Sivanathan, Mayer a Galinsky (2012) mae arweinwyr gorhyderus yn perfformio’n wael.

Neu

Mae arweinwyr gorhyderus yn perfformio’n wael (Fast, Sivanathan, Mayer & Galinsky, 2012).

Ail ddyfyniad

Am eich bod wedi cynnwys y tri awdur yn y dyfyniad cyntaf, gallwch nawr ddefnyddio et al. ar gyfer unrhyw ddyfyniadau eraill yn y testun.

Canfu Fast et al. (2012) fod unigolion sydd â theimlad goddrychol o bŵer yn tueddu i oramcanu eu galluoedd.

Neu

Mae unigolion sydd â theimlad goddrychol o bŵer yn tueddu i ormcanu eu galluoedd (Fast et al., 2012).

Os oes gan yr adnodd yr hoffech ei ddefnyddio chwe awdur neu fwy, gallwch ddefnyddio et al. ar gyfer y dyfyniad cynt

Cwestiynau?

Os oes gennych unrhyw gwestiynau hyd yn hyn rhowch wybod i ni gan ddefnyddio’r adran sylwadau yn y blog neu drwy twitter gan ddefnyddio #su5dor. Gallwch hefyd e-bostio  buslib@swansea.ac.uk.

Yfory byddwn yn edrych ar wefannau a dogfennau ar-lein.

5 Days of Referencing (#su5dor): Day 1. Referencing Books

Welcome to this short online course which will run over the next 5 days.  Although this is specifically tailored for those in the School of Management there are tips that any student using APA style of referencing can use.

We will cover the basics to help you get started with APA style referencing and give you some advice on tools you can use to help you.  The APA 6th edition style of referencing is a widely recognised style and has clear rules around how to reference different types of material.

APA is an author/date style of referencing. This means that you cite the author(s) surname(s) and the date of publication in the text of your assignment and then the full details of the resources you used (books, journal articles, online documents) in an alphabetical list at the end called a reference list.  There is a full and comprehensive APA Library Guide. There is also a short APA guide available online with paper copies in the library.

Why do I have to reference?
Referencing is a very important part of your academic course.  If you use someone else’s work without acknowledging them you will be committing plagiarism.  Referencing correctly will not only give the author of the work full recognition but also demonstrate to your lecturer you have read academic sources and read widely.  The key to referencing well in an assignment is to always use good reliable sources.  Finding stuff on the internet is easy; finding good reliable stuff on the internet is a little more challenging.

We would always recommend you start by looking at the reading list provided to you by your lecturer on Blackboard.  Look to the left of the screen in any Blackboard module and you can see a link to the interactive reading list.

Each resource in the reading list will allow you to click on it and it will take you back to iFind, the library catalogue.  The library catalogue will give you enough bibliographic information to be able to reference the resource you need.

Referencing Books
Let’s start with referencing a book today. As an example, we’ll use the book Economics which is written by Michael Parkin, Kent Matthews and Melanie Powell.

The main sections you need to make a note of in order to reference a book correctly are:

  • Author(s) or Editor(s)
  • Year of publication
  • Title of book
  • Edition (if applicable)
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher

If you have the book in front of you, you can normally find this information on the cover and inside the title page.

This is how this book would look in the reference list
Parkin, M., Matthews, K., & Powell, M. (2014). Economics. (9th ed.). Harlow: Pearson.

To help you, there’s a Citation option in the Actions menu on iFind (see below).

Screen clipping of the iFind record for the Economics book. It shows the Citation option and other options available under the Actions menu to the right of the record

You might need to make a few changes to the citation from iFind, though. Can you see the mistakes in the reference below?

Screen clipping of the APA citation as produced by iFind: Parkin, M., Matthews, K., & Powell, M. (2014). Economics / Michael Parkin. (9th ed.; European ed., Always learning). Harlow: Pearson.

In text citation
If you want to cite this book in text, there are 2 ways you can do it:

  • At the start of the sentence

According to Parkin, Powell and Matthews (2014) the study of economics is not just about money, but about the motivation and consequences of making choices.

  • At the end of the sentence

The study of economics is not just about money, but about the motivation and consequences of making choices (Parkin, Powell & Matthews, 2014).

Note: Link the two authors’ names with and when cited outside parentheses. Link with an ampersand (&) inside parentheses.

 

Questions?

If you have any questions so far let us know using the comments section in the blog or via twitter using #su5dor. You can also email buslib@swansea.ac.uk.

 

Tomorrow we’ll look at journal articles.