5 Days of Referencing (#su5dor): Day 5. Useful tools

There are a wide variety of tools which are freely available to help you with citing and creating reference lists, however none of them are perfect which is why it is important you know the basics of APA referencing and the key points to be aware of.

Citation tool in iFind

iFind, the library catalogue has a tool which recommends how books and journal articles should look in the APA style of referencing. (We looked at this briefly on Days 1 and 2.) Click on Library, then Actions then Citation to view this. You can view a short screencast of this online.

Screen clipping of a book record on iFind. Arrows show how to reveal the Citation option by clicking on the Library tab and then the Actions drop down menu.

Always check this! The tool is good but it will make some mistakes therefore you need to know which bits of information are required.

Referencing tools in databases

Some databases also have a tool that formats a reference for you. We have produced short screencasts of how to do this in Business Source Complete and in Proquest Business Collection. You must remember to check that the information is correct, though!

Referencing using word (Manage sources)
Word has a referencing tab on the tools bar which can be useful if you use the same laptop or computer to write assignments.  It will manage your sources and input in the correct APA style. We have produced a short guide to help you.  Take a look at the help pages available on the Microsoft Office site for more details on using this tool.

Endnote Online
Endnote is the tool Swansea University subscribes to, there is a desktop version for PCs on campus but the online version is very useful as you can use it anywhere that you have access to the internet. You can create your own library of sources and use the Cite While You Write feature in Word which will format your references in the APA style.

The library has produced an online guide to the web version of EndNote. We can provide further training if you would like to use it. We also offer 5 Days of EndNote (#su5doe). You can sign up to learn about EndNote Online in short, bite-size chunks.

 

Thanks for participating in 5 days of referencing (#su5dor). Remember, referencing help and advice is always available from your School of Management librarians. You can book a one-one appointment (also available via skype), email us, or call in the Library to speak with one of us. 

Good luck with your assignments!

5 Niwrnod o Gyfeirnodi (#su5dor): Diwrnod 5. Offer defnyddiol.

Mae amrywiaeth eang o offer ar gael am ddim i’ch helpu gyda dyfynnu a chreu rhestr gyfeiriadau, ond nid oes un ohonynt yn berffaith, felly mae’n bwysig eich bod yn gyfarwydd â hanfodion cyfeirnodi APA a’r pwyntiau allweddol i fod yn ymwybodol ohonynt.

Offeryn cyfeirnodi yn iFind

Mae gan iFind, catalog y Llyfrgell, erfyn sy’n argymell sut y dylai llyfrau ac erthyglau mewn cyfnodolion edrych gan ddefnyddio arddull gyfeirnodi APA. (Edrychom ar hyn yn fras ar Ddiwrnodau 1 a 2.) Cliciwch ar ‘Llyfrgell’, yna ‘Gweithrediadau’, yna ‘Cyfeiriad’ i weld hyn. Gallwch edrych ar sgrinlediad byr o hyn ar-lein.

Screen clipping of a book record on iFind. Arrows show how to reveal the Citation option by clicking on the Library tab and then the Actions drop down menu.

Gwiriwch hyn bob tro! Mae’n erfyn da, ond bydd yn gwneud rhai camgymeriadau, felly mae angen i chi wybod pa wybodaeth sydd ei hangen.

Offer cyfeirnodi mewn cronfeydd data

Mae gan rai cronfeydd data hefyd offeryn sy’n fformatio cyfeirnodi ar eich cyfer. Rydym wedi cynhyrchu sgrinlediadau byr o sut i wneud hyn yn Business Source Complete ac yn Proquest Business Collection. Er, rhaid i chi gofio gwirio bod yr wybodaeth yn gywir!

Cyfeirnodi gan ddefnyddio Word (rheoli ffynonellau)

Mae tab Cyfeirnodi ar y bar Offer yn Word, a all fod yn ddefnyddiol os ydych yn defnyddio’r un gliniadur neu gyfrifiadur i ysgrifennu aseiniadau. Bydd yn rheoli’ch ffynonellau ac yn defnyddio’r arddull APA gywir. Rydym wedi cynhyrchu canllaw cryno i’ch helpu. Edrychwch ar y tudalennau cymorth sydd ar gael ar wefan Microsoft Office am ragor o fanylion ynglŷn â defnyddio’r offeryn hwn.

EndNote Online

EndNote yw’r erfyn y mae Prifysgol Abertawe’n tanysgrifio i’w ddefnyddio, felly mae fersiwn bwrdd gwaith ar gyfer cyfrifiaduron ar y campws, ond mae’r fersiwn ar-lein yn ddefnyddiol iawn, oherwydd gallwch ei defnyddio unrhyw le, cyhyd â bod gennych fynediad i’r rhyngrwyd. Mae ein harweiniad ar gael drwy glicio yma, a gallwn ddarparu hyfforddiant pellach os hoffech ei defnyddio. Gallwch greu eich llyfrgell ffynonellau eich hun a defnyddio’r nodwedd ddyfynnu wrth ysgrifennu yn Word, a fydd yn fformatio’ch cyfeiriadau yn arddull APA.

Mae’r llyfrgell wedi cynhyrchu canllawiau ar-lein i’r fersiwn gwe o EndNote. Gallwn ddarparu rhagor o hyfforddiant os hoffech ei ddefnyddio. Rydym hefyd yn cynnig 5 diwrnod o EndNote (#su5doe). Gallwch gofrestru i ddysgu am EndNote Online mewn tameidiau bach, fesul tipyn.

Diolch am gymryd rhan yn 5 Niwrnod o Gyfeirnodi (#su5dor). Cofiwch fod cymorth a chyngor cyfeirnodi ar gael bob amser gan eich llyfrgellwyr yr Ysgol Reolaeth. Gallwch drefnu apwyntiad un-i-un (hefyd ar gael drwy skype), ein e-bostio, neu alw heibio’r Llyfrgell i siarad ag un ohonom.

Pob lwc gyda’ch aseiniad!

5 Days of Referencing (#su5dor): Day 4. Formatting your reference list

Over the last 3 days we have looked at the 3 main information sources you will be using in your assignment: academic books, journal articles and online documents/websites.  It is important that your reference list provides all the information in order for your lecturers to be able to find the source if they wanted.

It is also important that it is formatted in the correct APA style.  This is sometimes where students struggle and spend a long time manually formatting their lists; however there are a number of tools in Word that can make this process quicker and easier for you.

Key points

  • The reference list should start on a new page.
  • Your reference list should include everything you have cited in your assignment NOTeverything you have read (which is called a bibliography).
  • It should be alphabetical according to author’s surname.
  • It should be double-spaced and indented.

If we use all the resources we have looked at over the last 3 days my reference list would look like this:

A reference list in APA format

To do this is 3 easy steps in word, firstly highlight the reference list, then select the icon A-Z from the options, then to double space and indent the list choose the small arrow next to paragraph and from the options choose Special>Hanging, then Line spacing>double.

Screenshot of the options to choose when formatting an APA reference list in MS Word

Here’s a short screencast to show you how to format the list using the tools in Word.  

Questions?

If you have any questions so far let us know using the comments section in the blog or via twitter using #su5dor. You can also email buslib@swansea.ac.uk.

Tomorrow we’ll look at tools that can help you reference.

5 Niwrnod o Gyfeirnodi (#su5dor): Diwrnod 4. Fformatio eich rhestr gyfeiriadau

Dros y tridiau diwethaf rydym wedi edrych ar y tair prif ffynhonnell wybodaeth y byddwch yn eu defnyddio yn eich aseiniadau, sef llyfrau, erthyglau mewn cyfnodolion a dogfennau ar-lein/gwefannau. Mae’n bwysig bod eich Rhestr Gyfeiriadau’n darparu’r holl wybodaeth er mwyn i’ch darlithwyr allu dod o hyd i’r ffynhonnell, os byddant am wneud hynny.

Mae’n bwysig hefyd ei bod wedi’i fformatio yn yr Arddull APA gywir. Mae myfyrwyr weithiau’n cael anhawster â hyn ac yn treulio llawer o amser yn fformatio’u rhestri eu hunain; ond mae nifer o offer Word a all wneud y broses hon yn gynt ac yn haws i chi.

Pwyntiau allweddol

  • Dylid dechrau’r Rhestr Gyfeiriadau ar dudalen newydd.
  • Dylai’ch Rhestr Gyfeiriadau gynnwys popeth rydych wedi’i ddyfynnu yn eich aseiniad, NID popeth rydych wedi’i ddarllen (a elwir yn llyfryddiaeth).
  • Dylai fod yn nhrefn y wyddor yn ôl cyfenw’r awdur.
  • Dylai fod bylchau dwbl rhwng llinellau a dylai fod wedi’i mewnoli.

Os defnyddiwn yr holl adnoddau rydym wedi edrych arnynt dros y tridiau diwethaf, byddai fy Rhestr Gyfeiriadau’n edrych fel hyn:

A reference list in APA format

Mae gwneud hyn yn cymryd tri cham syml yn Word: yn gyntaf, amlygwch y Rhestr Gyfeiriadau; yna dewiswch yr eicon A-Z o’r opsiynau; yna i roi bylchau dwbl rhwng llinellau a mewnoli’r rhestr, dewiswch y saeth fach ger y paragraff, ac o’r opsiynau dewiswch ‘Special>Hanging’, yna ‘Line spacing>double’.

Screenshot of the options to choose when formatting an APA reference list in MS Word

Dyma sgrinlediad byr i ddangos i chi sut i fformatio’r rhestr gan ddefnyddio’r offer yn Word.  

Cwestiynau?

Os oes gennych unrhyw gwestiynau hyd yn hyn rhowch wybod i ni gan ddefnyddio’r adran sylwadau yn y blog neu drwy twitter gan ddefnyddio #su5dor. Gallwch hefyd e-bostio buslib@swansea.ac.uk.

Yfory byddwn yn edrych ar offer a allai’ch helpu i gyfeirnodi.

5 Days of Referencing (#su5dor): Day 3. Websites and online documents

Remember what we said on day 1? The key to referencing well in an assignment is firstly to use good reliable sources.  Make sure you evaluate anything you find online using the WWWW method:

Who – Who wrote the information?
Why – 
Why is this information there (Is there a bias?)
When – When was it published (is it current enough?)
Where – 
Where is it from (clues in the URL ie: .com, .ac.uk)

The main sections you need to make a note of in order to reference a website or online document correctly are:

  • Author(s) (personal or corporate)
  • Year of publication
  • Title of website/document
  • Date of retrieval (only needed if the source is likely to be updated)
  • Direct working URL

Very often some bits of information will not be available with online documents; a common one is no date – in this case you can do the following:

  • No date? – use (n.d.) instead

You can find further advice on pages 18 – 20 of our APA referencing guide.

In the reference list
Here are a few examples:

Websites
You only need to include a date of retrieval in the reference list if you think a website maybe updated (it’s difficult to know this sometimes).

Tesco PLC. (n.d.). Our businesses. Retrieved March 10, 2017, from https://www.tescoplc.com/about-us/our-businesses/.

Online publication
This reference links to the PDF version of the code which has a published date, therefore it does not need a date of retrieval.

Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. (2016). Annual report and accounts 2015-16. Retrieved from https://www.cipd.co.uk/Images/annual-report-2015-16_tcm18-16632.pdf

 In text citation
A good tip if you are going to use the same citation a few times in your assignment is to use acronyms.  You must explain the acronym in full the first time you use it, followed by the acronym so it is clear to your lecturer what is stands for.

First citation:
According to the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD, 2016, p.18) a “healthy, happy and engaged workforce is an important indicator of our success”.

Or

According to the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD, 2016) a “healthy, happy and engaged workforce is an important indicator of our success” (p.18).

Or

A “healthy, happy and engaged workforce is an important indicator of our success” (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD), 2016, p.18).

Second citation
Because you explained the acronym in the first citation you can now just use the acronym on any subsequent citations in text.

Engagement in ongoing training and development is “the key to a successful career” (CIPD, 2016, p.18).

Or

The CIPD (2016) state that employees should engage in ongoing training and development as it is “the key to a successful career” (p.18).

Questions?

If you have any questions so far let us know using the comments section in the blog or via twitter using #su5dor. You can also email buslib@swansea.ac.uk.

Tomorrow we’ll look at formatting your reference list.

5 Niwrnod o Gyfeirnodi (#su5dor): Diwrnod 3. Gwefannau a dogfennau ar-lein

Ydych chi’n cofio beth ddwedom ar Ddiwrnod 1? Yr hyn sy’n allweddol er mwyn cyfeirnodi’n dda mewn aseiniad yn y lle cyntaf yw defnyddio ffynonellau dibynadwy da. Gwnewch yn siŵr eich bod yn gwerthuso popeth a gewch ar-lein gan ddefnyddio’r dull WWWW (Who, Why, When, Where):

Pwy – Pwy ysgrifennodd y wybodaeth?

Pam – Pam bod y wybodaeth yno? (A oes tuedd?)

Pryd – Pryd cyhoeddwyd y wybodaeth? (A yw’n gyfredol?)

Ble – O ble mae’r wybodaeth? (Cliwiau yn yr URL h.y. .com, .ac.uk)

Y prif adrannau y bydd angen i chi eu nodi er mwyn cyfeirnodi gwefan neu ddogfen ar-lein yn gywir yw:

  • Awdur(on) (personol neu gorfforaethol)
  • Blwyddyn cyhoeddi
  • Teitl y wefan/dogfen
  • Dyddiad adalw (os yw’n debygol y caiff y ffynhonnell ei diweddaru yn unig)
  • URL uniongyrchol sy’n gweithio

Yn aml iawn, bydd peth gwybodaeth nad yw ar gael ar gyfer dogfennau ar-lein; enghraifft gyffredin yw dim dyddiad – yn yr achos hwn gallwch wneud y canlynol:

  • Dim dyddiad? – defnyddiwch (n.d.) yn lle

Mae cyngor pellach ar dudalennau 19-21 ein Canllawiau Cyfeirnodi APA.

Yn y Rhestr Gyfeiriadau

Dyma ychydig o enghreifftiau:

  • Gwefannau

Yr unig achos y mae angen nodi dyddiad adalw yn y Rhestr Gyfeiriadau yw os credwch y gallai’r wefan gael ei diweddaru (mae’n anodd gwybod weithiau).

Tesco PLC. (n.d.). Our businesses. Adalwyd ar Mawrth 10, 2017, o https://www.tescoplc.com/about-us/our-businesses/

  • Cyhoeddiad ar-lein

Mae’r cyfeiriad hwn yn cysylltu â fersiwn PDF y Côd, y mae dyddiad cyhoeddi arno, felly nid oes angen rhoi dyddiad adalw.

Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. (2016). Annual report and accounts 2015-16. Adalwyd  https://www.cipd.co.uk/Images/annual-report-2015-16_tcm18-16632.pdf

Dyfynnu o fewn y testun

Gair i gall: os byddwch yn defnyddio’r un dyfyniad sawl gwaith yn eich aseiniad, defnyddiwch acronymau. Rhaid i chi egluro’r acronym yn llawn y tro cyntaf, gyda’r acronym ei hun, fel bod yr ystyr yn amlwg i’r darlithydd.

  • Dyfyniad cyntaf:

Yn ôl y Sefydliad Siartredig Personél a Datblygu (CIPD, 2016, t.18) “a healthy, happy and engaged workforce is an important indicator of our success”.

Neu

Yn ôl y Sefydliad Siartredig Personél a Datblygu (CIPD, 2016) a “healthy, happy and engaged workforce is an important indicator of our success” (t.18).

Neu

A “healthy, happy and engaged workforce is an important indicator of our success” (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD), 2016, t.18).

  • Ail ddyfyniad

Am i chi egluro’r acronym yn y dyfyniad cyntaf, gallwch nawr ddefnyddio’r acronym mewn unrhyw ddyfyniadau eraill yn y testun.

Ymgysylltu â hyfforddiant a datblygiad parhaus yw’r “key to a successful career” (CIPD, 2016, t.18).

Neu

Mae’r CIPD (2016) yn nodi y dylai gweithwyr ymgysylltu â hyfforddiant a datblygiad parhaus gan mai hynny yw’r “key to a successful career” (t.18).

Cwestiynau?

Os oes gennych unrhyw gwestiynau hyd yn hyn rhowch wybod i ni gan ddefnyddio’r adran sylwadau yn y blog neu drwy twitter gan ddefnyddio #su5dor. Gallwch hefyd e-bostio buslib@swansea.ac.uk.

Yfory byddwn yn edrych ar fformatio eich Rhestr Gyfeiriadau.

5 Days of Referencing (#su5dor):Day 2. Journal articles

Journal articles are an excellent source of up-to-date and reliable information. The best students use journal articles as well as books in their research.

Do you remember which information you needed to reference a book? There are a few more bits of information in a journal article which you need to make a note of in order to reference it correctly. The main sections you need to make a note of are:

  • Author(s)
  • Year of publication
  • Title of article
  • Journal name
  • Volume
  • Issue number (only use if there is no continuous pagination, i.e.: if each issue begins with page 1)
  • Page number
  • doi (if available)

If you have the journal article in front of you, you can normally find this information on the first page.  Alternatively search for the article on iFind, the library catalogue (using the ‘Articles & more’ tab) and you will be able to see the bibliographic information you need in order to reference correctly. You can also use the Citation option in the Actions menu to see the APA reference. Remember to check the details are correct, though!

Screen clipping of the iFind citation tool for a journal article

This is how this journal article should look in the reference list
Cohen, J., Manzon, G., & Zamora, B. (2015). Contextual and individual dimensions of taxpayer decision making. Journal of Business Ethics, 126, 631-647.

In text citation
Sometimes you may want to cite a direct quote in your assignment, however try to use direct quotes sparingly as paraphrasing shows a better understanding of your topic.

If you decide you would like to include a direct quote it is very important you use quotation marks and you always include page numbers.  There are a number of ways you can do this:

At the start of the sentence:
According to Cohen, Manzon and Zamora (2015, p. 632) “There are a number of non-economic factors that potentially affect taxpayer decisions.”

Or

According to Cohen, Manzon and Zamora (2015) “There are a number of non-economic factors that potentially affect taxpayer decisions” (p. 632).

At the end of the sentence:
“There are a number of non-economic factors that potentially affect taxpayer decisions” (Cohen, Manzon & Zamora 2015, p. 632).

How many authors should I include?
Journal articles and indeed books can sometimes be written by many authors, APA has a specific rule for how many authors you should include in-text.

Let’s use this journal article as an example:

Fast, N., Sivanathan, N., Mayer, N., & Galinsky, A. (2012). Power and overconfident decision-making. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 117(2), 249-260.

If the resource you want to cite has 3-5 authors (which this example does) you must include all the authors the first time you cite, therefore it would look like this in text:

First citation
According to Fast, Sivanathan, Mayer and Galinsky (2012) overconfident leaders perform poorly.

Or

Overconfident leaders perform poorly (Fast, Sivanathan, Mayer & Galinsky, 2012).

Second citation
Because you included all 4 authors in the first citation you can now use et al. on any subsequent citations in text.

Fast et al. (2012) found that individuals with a subjective feeling of power tend to overestimate their abilities.

Or

Individuals with a subjective feeling of power tend to overestimate their abilities (Fast et al., 2012).

If the resource you want to cite has 6 or more authors you can use et al. the first time you cite.

Questions?

If you have any questions so far let us know using the comments section in the blog or via twitter using #su5dor. You can also email buslib@swansea.ac.uk.

Tomorrow we’ll look at websites and online documents.